Dr. Pauline Boss has made a list of the following six guidelines for interventions to be undertaken by supporters. These six guidelines are not linear, but move in a circular fashion, going back and forth. These six guidelines are explained in detail in the book, Ambiguous Loss and Recovery from Trauma (published in 2006/ Japanese translation in 2015). 1．Finding meaning ＜Helpful points> Labeling a troubling situation as an “ambiguous loss” Discuss with family and peers how you are coping with what has happened. Don’t have anything to hide, etc. 2．Tempering Mastery ＜Helpful points> Admit that the world isn’t always fair. Know that even if you are feeling down and depressed, it’s all because of the ambiguous situation, not you or your family. Reduce self-blame, etc. 3．Reconstructing identity ＜Helpful points> Find “psychological family” (someone who seems like family) in the community Think flexibly about who has what role in the family. Do not get isolated. Do not be overly obsessed with social norms such as saving face, etc. 4．Normalizing Ambivalence ＜Helpful points> Normalize feelings of guilt, shame, and anger as a natural part of life. Discuss these feelings with your peers and people you trust. Do not make a “no discussion rule” with family and friends, etc. 5．Revising attachment ＜Helpful points> Acknowledge that the family, home, and hometown that exist in your mind are not the same as they used to be. Grieve over what you have lost and celebrate what you still have. Find new human connections, etc. 6．Discovering hope ＜Helpful points> Try dealing with ambiguity easily Accept unanswered questions Feel in control of your life, even if things don’t go the way you want them to Thinking it is OK, even if you fail, etc.